7/06/2006

Temple (tera)

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Temple (tera)

***** Location: Japan, other areas
***** Season: Non-seasonal Topic
***** Category: Humanity


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Explanation

Temples are places of worship. They are found in many areas of the world. They are the places where all the religious festivals take place.

tera, ...dera, ji 寺 (Buddhist) temple
crossroad temple, tsujidoo 辻堂
temple hall, hall, doo 堂
Hall, Temple Hall for Fudo Myo-O, Fudo Do (Fudoo doo 不動堂)

tatchuu, tacchū 塔頭, 塔中 (たっちゅう) sub-temple, subtemple
- in the compound of a Zen temple, built after the death of a high-ranking Zen priest.

- quote
塔頭 means "stupa,"
but is best translated in this case as "mortuary sub-temple." Such sub-temples were typically constructed by the abbot of a large Zen monastery (e.g. Tenryūji, Daitokuji, Nanzenji, etc.) in conjunction with a lay patron who became the "founding donor" (kaiki 開基). They were built to house the stupa and mortuary portrait (chinzō 頂相) of the abbot after his death, and to provide living quarters for his dharma heirs in succeeding generations, who were charged with performing daily, monthly and annual memorial services (gakki 月忌, nenki 年忌, etc.). At the same time, the ancestral tablets (ihai 位牌) of the founding donor's family were also enshrined in the sub-temple, and also served by the resident monks.
Mortuary sub-temples often had beautiful gardens (the so-called "Zen gardens" of Kyoto), which were not for meditation, as is often claimed, but for the enjoyment of the ancestral spirits and the living heirs who cared for them. Some retired abbots lived in their sub-temples (stupa sites) until their deaths.
- source : www.buddhism-dict.net - Charles Muller

honzan 本山 main temple (headquarters)
matsuji 末寺 sub-temple subtemple headquarters


Look at some typical temples of Japan !


A Buddhist Temple in Japan is opposed to a Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社, miya, guu 宮), see below.



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. Japan Buddhist Temples - Facebook .



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Japanese Temple Windows
Japanese Temple Bells
Japanese Temple Gardens


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Worldwide use

India

Temple haiku from India

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Things found on the way



shichidoo garan 七堂伽藍
Temple compound with seven main buildings

The seven principal buildings considered, necessary for a Buddhist temple from the 7c-12c.
They include: the main image hall, *kondou 金堂, pagoda, *tou 塔; lecture hall, *koudou 講堂; belfry, *shourou 鐘楼; sutra storage, *kyouzou 経蔵; priests' quarters, *soubou 僧坊; and refectory, *jikidou 食堂.

However, the expression shichidou might have referred to a finished building and shitsudou 悉堂 may have carried the nuance of a truly perfect hall.

The seven main buildings erected at Zen 禅 sect temples from 12c on were: the main hall, *butsuden 仏殿; the lecture hall, *hattou 法堂; the principal gate, *sanmon 三門; the kitchen building, often housing the administrative offices and living accommodations for some monks, *kuri 庫裏; meditation hall *zendou 禅堂 also called soudou (soodoo) 僧堂; bathhouse, yokushitsu 浴室; and toilet facilities, *tousu 東司.

See also
garan 伽藍, *garan haichi 伽藍配置 
source : JAANUS






奈良七重七堂伽藍八重ざくら
Nara nanae shichi doo garan yae-zakura

the seven buildings
of the temple compounds in Nara -
double cherry blossoms


. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

Written in spring of 1684 貞亨元年, Basho age 41 or later.

Here Basho contrasts the number seven for the temple buildings with the number eight (八 meaning many) for the cherry blossoms.


The "Seven halls of a temple compound" 七堂 were different in Nara

Kondoo 金堂 Golden Hall
Koodoo 講堂 Lecture Hall
Too 塔 Pagoda
Shooroo 鐘楼 Bell tower
Kyoozoo 経蔵 Sutra Hall
Shokudoo 食堂 /中門)Hall for Eating
Sooboo 僧坊 living quarters for the monks

There is also a waka poem by Ise no Oosuke - Taifu 伊勢大輔
a poet of the Heian period

いにしへの奈良の都の八重桜けふ
九重ににほいぬるかな

Inishie no Nara no miyako no yae-zakura
kyo kokonoe ni nioi nuru kana

The double cherry blossoms are smelling sweet in bloom today in the imperial Court in Kyoto (Heian) as well as long ago in the ancient capital in Nara.



. Nara 奈良 the ancient capital .



quote
"nanae [the seven-ply (referring to seventy years and seven generations, or the seventy years' reigns of seven Emperors)]" is a noun,
"garan [a Buddhist convent or monastery]" is a noun,
source : www.hdever.com



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HAIKU




temple Konpon-Ji 根本寺 on the trip to Kashima 鹿島紀行


寺にねてまことがほなる月見かな
tera ni nete makoto gao ni naru tsukimi kana

staying at a temple
I find my own true face
gazing at the moon . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve

- The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.



Photo by Rob Geraghty

resting at a temple
a sincere face appears
this moon-viewing

Tr. Higginson



月はやし梢は雨を持ながら 
. tsuki hayashi kozue wa ame o mochinagara .


. Matsuo Basho - Kashima Kikoo 鹿島紀行 .


MORE
. Temples visited by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .



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辻堂や苗代一枚菜一枚
tsujidoo ya nawashiro ichi mai na ichi mai

a crossroads temple--
one rice seedling
one vegetable

Issa, 1824

127 temple haiku by Issa
Tr. David Lanoue



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雪の日や堂にぎっしり鳩雀
yuki no hi ya dou ni gisshiri hato suzume

snow falling,
the temple hall filled
with pigeons, sparrows


Tr. and comment by Chris Drake:

From the 11th month (December) of 1825. Issa doesn't mention a special ceremony, so he seems to have visited the temple on an ordinary day. His diary shows he was on the road this month and made extended stays at a couple of Reformed Pure Land temples, so perhaps this hokku was written during one of his stays. On this day it's snowing, and in Shinano that usually means a fair amount of snow, yet the main(?) hall is completely filled -- mostly with birds coming inside from the temple grounds to weather the snowstorm.

Issa might be referring to the fact that Shakyamuni Buddha was both a sparrow and a pigeon in earlier incarnations and to the fact that Amida Buddha, the Buddha of the Pure Land in the west, loved to preach to birds. There may be some humor in the fact that it takes a snowstorm to get the birds into the hall, where they can see Amida's image. And perhaps there's a humorous comparison with humans, who tend to call on Amida most passionately when things are going badly for them. Issa may include himself in that category.
Issa and the birds are each recognizing and expressing their dependence on Amida in their own way.


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松杉や枯野の中の不動堂
matsu sugi ya kareno no naka no Fudōdō

pines and cedars -
in the withered fields
the Hall of Fudo

Masaoka Shiki at Takahata Fudo Hall: Fudo and Haiku


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famous KURI of temple Suigan-Ji, Matsushima 瑞巌寺


庫裏あけて煙のこもる若葉哉
kuri akete kemuri no komoru wakaba kana

I open the temple kitchen door
and thick smoke hangs
in the young leaves . . .


. Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規 .


quote
kuri 庫裡 - Also written 庫裏.
A structure in the precincts of a temple originally associated primarily with food preparation. It also came to contain the administrative offices of the temple and accommodation for certain classes of monks, particularily those involved in the everyday running of the temple. Kuri is probably a shortened form of *kuriya 厨.
With the introduction of Zen 禅 Buddhism to Japan in the Kamakura period, kuri came to be used as the center of temple administration and food preparation which also often provided accommodation for monks involved in administration. In the symmetrical layout of the classic large-scale Zen temple, the kuri was situated just outside the cloister *kairou 回廊, on the east side of the temple compound to balance the monks' communal living and meditation halls *soudou 僧堂 and *zendou 禅堂, on the west side. A kuri was also found at Zen sect subtemples *tatchuu 塔頭, and in this context its residential character was more marked.

By the Edo period, kuri was the most widely used term for the monks' lodging in a temple, regardless of sect.
source : JAANUS


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snow in the temple
the Buddha smiles
in silence


Look at some photos from temple Tokei-Ji, Kita-Kamakura
Gabi Greve



summer heat -
in the temple hall
flowers glistening


Look at some flower garlands
Gabi Greve


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hana chirete ko no ma no tera to nari ni keri
Yosa Buson


The cherry-blossoms having fallen,
The temple belongs
To the branches.
Blyth


With blossoms fallen
in spaces between the twigs
a temple has appeared.

Edith Shiffert & Yuki Sawa


The cherry blossoms fallen--
through the branches
a temple.
Robert Hass


With the cherry blossoms gone
The temple is glimpsed
Through twigs and branches.
Yuzuru Miura

... ...

this rural temple
with its view of Mt. Fuji:
how picture-perfect!
Larry Bole

Look at the photo of the temple: Photo Haiku Gallery


Contributed by Larry Bole

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Related words

***** Introducing Temples and Shrines of Japan
Gabi Greve, Daruma Museum


. Temple Festivals and KIGO .


***** Shrine (jinja) and Haiku


***** . Temples, Amulets and Talismans .


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. Japan Buddhist Temples - Facebook .


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8 comments:

Anonymous said...

.
sound of Autumn
falling nuts
on an old temple


Etsuko Yanagibori, 2006

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cherrypoetryclub/message/28345

Anonymous said...

.
distant temple drums
close by the sound of a dog
shaking itself


Johannes Manjrekar, India

http://haiku.cc.ehime-u.ac.jp/nobo/20061116/18583.html

anonymous said...

山眠る六百余年の古刹抱き  
yama nemuru roppyaku-yonen no kosatsu daki

a mountain hibernates
holding the temple
older than six hundred years  

岡部義男 Okabe Yoshio

Tr. Fay Aoyagi
http://fayaoyagi.wordpress.com/2010/12/14/todays-haiku-december-17-2010/

Gabi Greve - temples in Osaka said...

Temples in Osaka
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Generally, the temples of early modern Japan’s castle towns can be divided into two types: neighborhood temples and large-scale temple complexes. In the case of early modern Osaka, only the Pure Land Buddhist sect was permitted to operate neighborhood temples inside the city (Itō, 1992).

Although Osaka’s largest and best-known temple complex was Shitennōji Temple, similar types of religious complexes could also be found at Ikutama and Tenma Shrines (Yamasaki, 2012). The grounds of many large-scale shrines and temples also played host to a wide range of commercial establishments, including market stalls, teahouses, and performance tents. Kanda Yutsuki addresses this aspect in part in her article.

In addition, a wide array of religious mendicants, including Shūgendō ascetics, beggar monks, Pure Land Buddhist itinerants, shamanic priests, and itinerant Shinto practitioners, lived in the city and gathered alms (Tsukada, 2007).

Focusing on Osaka’s beggar monks, a group of Buddhist mendicants who were organized under the authority of Kyoto’s Kurama Temple, Yoshida Nobuyuki elucidates both their religious features and character as itinerant performers (Yoshida, 1999). While the various groups of religious mendicants residing in Osaka were organized under the authority of a specific temple or religious organization, the social conditions of each group was virtually the same and there was significant intermingling between these groups.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877916612000148
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Gabi Greve - Basho archives said...

この寺は庭一盃のばせを哉 
kono tera wa / niwa ippai no / bashō kana

Matsuo Basho

baseo banana plant

Gabi Greve - Buson said...

Yosa Buson visiting temples

- collection -

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

Fudo Myo-O 不動明王

Fudoji 不動寺 Fudo-Ji Temples - Information

Anonymous said...

Gifu mover gives forgotten temples new life in new places
Due to the decline in Buddhist worshippers and the population in general, the number of empty or abandoned temples has been growing in recent years.

Seeing this as an opportunity for a new business model, Goto Shrines-and-temples Construction Co., based in Ginan, Gifu Prefecture, is offering to move old shrines and rebuild them in new locations.

Not only is this cheaper than building a new temple from scratch, but it also might become a new recycling trend as temples built before the war were made with high-quality materials that are often difficult to acquire these days.

The firm is now working on moving the main building in a temple complex built in 1912 out of Inabe, Mie Prefecture.

The previous temple chief lives in Chiba and holds another position there. Citing old age and the inability to commute regularly, he retired, leaving the temple in Mie without a chief.

Only 40 households patronize the temple and it has become difficult to maintain the building, as one of its main pillars is leaning and the structure is leaking. At the very least, the worshippers wanted to save the dais, and began contacting other temples.

When news of their problem reached Katsuhiro Goto, chairman of Goto Shrines-and-temples Construction, he offered to take over for free. He then approached Kosenji Temple in Hashima, Gifu Prefecture, which was planning to rebuild its old temple at that time, with the offer of re-using the temple building from Inabe.

“We can’t stand to watch it slowly go to waste. Dismantling it also costs a lot of money,” said one worshipper .

All of them happily agreed to the new arrangement.

The pillars and beams are constructed from fine-grained “keyaki” (Japanese zelkova) and pine wood, which are considered rare materials nowadays. The building looked brand new once the workers washed and scrubbed down the surface.

“It has been strengthened and made quake-resistant, so the building can easily last another 300 years,” Goto said.

The cost, including the dismantling fee, was around ¥100 million, half the cost of building a new temple from scratch. The relocation is set for completion in August 2015.

“It is very rare to see a main building constructed from keyaki wood. I will keep the thoughts of the Inabe worshippers in mind and take good care of it,” Kenjo Yoshida, temple chief of Kosenji, said.

Some wooden buildings can even last up to 1,000 years if properly maintained.

“I hope that temples will consider recycling temple buildings made of high quality materials, even if they are old,” Goto said.

According to the Department of Religious Juridical Persons of the Agency for Cultural Affairs, the number of Buddhist juridical groups in Japan peaked at 77,922 in 2005. By 2011, that had declined to 77,588. This has led to many temples being dismantled, and, in some cases, abandoned.
- snip -
Japan Times

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/08/29/national/gifu-mover-gives-forgotten-temples-new-life-in-new-places/#.VAEMDqNQRBk
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